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  4. See sketch attached guys. I've received a drawing with this detail and I don't really know why they've used it so any clues would be appreciated. Just the double layered bundles of bars at the top and bottom of the right hand section. This is a bit of a vague question so I'm just looking for thoughts. Cheers
  5. @ReinisGailitis: " I suspect it is more on a conservative side so that you wouldn't underestimate tension in the tie". Like your point. by the way, i tried to mean reinforcement with r/f. Thank you very much.
  6. What do you mean by r/f? I'm not 100% sure about the upper limit on the strut angle (>=65 degree you mentioned), but I suspect it is more on a conservative side so that you wouldn't underestimate tension in the tie. Cheers
  7. @ReinisGailitis: Thank you very much for your point. With that approach, the strut angle can be limited. But it leads to enormous amount of r/f in the tie as the column load is fairly high. By the way, actually what is the risk of exceeding the strut angle?, is the strut will crush/ fail in shear?
  8. Hallo. Read some literature on load path method in strut-and-tie design. Also, check information on correct strut-and-tie models for pile caps - you shouldn't assume that the horizontal strut is lying on the interface of the column/pile cap - it should be positioned inside the pile cap. Cheers
  9. Hi all,According to most of the STM references, the maximum struct angle is about 60-65 degrees. I encountered a case which an elongated column has to be supported by a 2-pile pile cap. But the struct angle is about 70 degrees when the column load is replaced by two point loads at column edge. To maintain the strut angle to 60 degrees, need to have a shallow pile cap, then the Tie force is very large and cannot accommodate r/f.Is there anyone can assist please ?
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  11. I would say you have summarized our discussion in this post and cleared almost all doubts. Pleasure to discuss with you. Hope you won't mind for any more doubts. Thank you.
  12. Hallo. Strut and tie modeling is a complex design method which requires not only a good understanding of structural behavior but also knowledge in the application of the method. The method is based on the lower bound theorem of plasticity so there is an almost infinite number of solutions possible - design engineer must determine the best possible based on his or her knowledge - no software can apply engineering judgment. I would suggest you to thoroughly study strut-and-tie modeling and after some time you should be able to do the calculations by yourself. I'm pretty sure for now that I'll never leave strut-and-tie design to a software - I'll always do it by myself. Cheers
  13. Just remember that those are engineering calculations, not exact math and whatever you arrive at is only an estimate produced by particular assumptions and input data, which in general have some variation. If I'm designing a "rigid' base I prefer to design for both limit cases, thus assuming a pinned base as well as fully rigid, that way I know I'll be somewhere in between. In general deflections for the pinned case will be the most onerous so I check if they're ok for that case. Cheers
  14. okay Thanks , Surprising actually. Would nobody check the stiffness of a base plate connection ?? I try to calculate the stiffness of the footplate connection, and also the rotational spring stifnnesss of the plot foundation as function of the soil. These values to introduce in SCIA as the support Stiffnes...... cheers
  15. Just a caution... I have one of these and use MasterFormat (a North American standard specification format) as an overall guide with sub-directories in each of the sections. Over the years, I've filed thousands of articles ( and at times it is difficult to find something I'm looking for. About 30 years of accumulation and also currently at 36,172 Files, 2,693 Folders and takes up 43.4 GB (46,680,927,418 bytes)). Another problem is that some of the information is 'dated' and that there are more current articles on various websites. Dik
  16. Cool, no worries, I'm glad it helped you. I'm starting to do the same; build a technical library with examples and bits of design information that I come across!
  17. Hi, I wonder if there is any freeware for the design of pilecap of more than 4 piles (in my case 8) based on the strut and tie model (eurocode) , or a theoretical description. Thnx
  18. I'm not sure I completely understand what you're asking in your last post. I'll try to answer though: the regulation (not the standard), which equals the law, says that when you declare a single characteristic, it's enough. This does not include "NPD" ofcourse. So, a single actual value is sufficient. As a reply to your previous post: CE and DoP needs to exist twice: one copy for the client, another for your archives. You're legally bound to keep a copy for 10 years. You do not have to submit it to the government/...
  19. Thank you guys. Will spend some time to read through and understand the cause and restraint of LTB. Thanks for the help!
  20. Right king nero. Thank you once again. Also according to EN 1090-1, 4.5.4 on Page 11 "The requirements to resistance to fire of a component is under the responsibility of each Member State and is generally dependent on the type of structure/building it will be in, where in the structure/building and finally its function in the structural system." So there is no specific code but its purely our judgement. Am I right?
  21. Thanks for replies guys, I looked up the clause you suggested reinis but it didn't really cover what I was looking for. Edu90 this etag publication seems to cover what I was looking for although I have not had a chance to study it in detail. I have actually came across it before but I never thought of using it for this situation. This wasn't for a certain job or anything it was more just for self teaching as I had seen this situation and was wondering how to deal with it. I am going to do an example calculation to add to my reference material for future. Thanks again
  22. Hi, I have a thin-walled i.e. cold-formed quasi channel section (attachment). I've never come hand in hand with shear lag. I get the theory, however, I'm bit confused with eurocode (it uses 1993-1-3 & 1993-1-5). I've calculated that I should reduce both flanges. So in regards to ULS, how do I proceed ? I'm confused with SLS and ULS procedure, as in ULS it is shown that you calculate only Aeff (EN1993-1-5 NOTE 3). i saw some examples saying partly effective and fully effective, I'm can't understand why. Do I just shorten my flanges to beff? And calculate everything with eff sectional properties? If I do, what should I do with the stiffener or was it taken in account while calculating alpha0 ? Ty
  23. Read through this book - - there's a lot of good information on the matter. Anyway, lateral and torsional restraint is always recommended although you can only have lateral restraint. In such a situation elastic critical moment Mcr will be smaller compared to one in similar situation with torsional restraint added. In such situations, you have to calculate Mcr with appropriate "analytical" or empirical methods. Although I would always recommend using freeware "LTBeamN" where you can precisely model support/restraint condition in a specialized FEA package. Cheers
  24. for lateral TORSIONAL buckling you must have aside of lateral restrain a torsional restrain. Hope pic attached explains... Hence, once you put the "hands" you have point LTB restrains not continuous
  25. Hi there, it's ETAG Technical Report 029 easy enough to find a pdf. Hopefully that helps, let us know what you end up doing if you would!
  26. Hi guys I was checking existing steel structures and I always find the lateral restraint part confusing. When I am checking a steel beam I came across lateral restraint on Top flange and Btm flange. My initial understanding is that beam with slab sitting on it or with connected beams is considered continuously restrained or intermediately restrained respectively. However I am not really sure about the condition where I can use the lateral restraint condition at bottom flange provided I have slab sitting on it with secondary beam connected to it. Hopefully someone can discuss with me
  27. There is an ETAG(European Technical Approval Guideline) for post installed bonded anchors in concete which may help you, I don't have a copy here but I think it's not hard to find from google. It covrs similar checks to the ones you've shown for anchors and may have some applicability for hat you want. I'll post tomorrow if I find it!
  28. Then it seems that you should multiply the k16 value as you proposed in your last post, although i haven't seen specific information on this issue, so I'm not sure. Cheers
  29. Indeed , 3 or 4 anchors on each side .
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