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  1. Yesterday
  2. Hello I think that you should use traffic loads if the loads provided for access ways for buildings are too small for your application. Cheers
  3. Eurocode 1 gives the actions of vehicles in buildings: "table 6.7 - Traffic and parking areas in buildings". Category G is for "medium" vehicles with a weight between 30kN and 160kN. As examples are given: "delivery zones, zones accessible to fire engines (<160kN gross vehicle weight)" But what about larger vehicles? In traffic, the vehicle weight can be more than 160kN. Lets say 3 rear axles of 100kN each. I suppose a firetruck can be more than 160kN? Lets say you have a large building with a basement and the basement is larger than the building area. It is possible a firetruck, a "moving vehicle" (possible with elevator), a delivery truck,... can drive over the basement. What loads should be used in this case? It is still a traffic area and not a bridge. Should the exact loads being used?
  4. Last week
  6. Hi, i was wondering could i have some of your thoughts on the following in relation to the analysis of a horizontal rigid floor diaphragm over a transfer structure or maybe someone has come across it before. If you have a shear wall layout at different floor levels on upper floors on a structure which the location of the bracing walls mirrors each floor level i.e. shear walls are in the same location the entire height of the building. However when you get to lower level the walls become blade column, thicker walls and some are located in different areas i.e. thus the horizontal load distribution on the lower floor level where the wall has change would be different to the walls above. For the lateral load distribution analysis of the lower wall level diaphragm, to find out how much load is allocated to each wall depending on its stiffness, would you apply the total horizontal load for the upper levels at the centre of rigidity of the upper walls, at the centre of rigidity location on the lower level diaphragm as one force in each direction, then just analyse the lateral loads at the lower level which are applied directly at that level separately. I have previously always placed the total lateral load over transfer levels at the centre of rigidity of the upper wall layout., however now I am not too sure? Has anyone ever come across this in the past, analysing using hand calculations rather than software. As a really simplistic example basically if You had say a 30m x 30m square area on plan forming a floor diaphragm on upper levels of a building. At each one of this those levels You then have one bracing element only in the right hand corner of the 30m x 30m square. From this You apply say evenly distributed horizontal wind load across the face of the level applied at the centre of pressure I.e. Say 15m in from each side, the bracing member in the corner then takes all the loading based on its stiffness as per any general shear wall layout. The horizontal load acts at the bottom of this wall, and this diaphragm has a shear centre or centre of rigidity (say it works out at 3m in from right hand side as an example) at which the overall load acts away from the centre of pressure which is where eccentricity causes any torsion etc in the diaphragm.So when you get to the bottom transfer level which is still a 30m x 30m square, however on this level you suddenly have 2 bracing elements one on the right hand side and one on the left hand side this time, thus the shear centre or centre of rigidity changes of the wall stiffness of the diaphragm changes, so my issue is that the loads applied directly at that level to the face of the transfer level are placed at the centre of pressure at that level say again 15m in from either side. However are the loads from the levels above which are also transferred through this level applied at shear centre of the above wall system (in this case say 3m in from right hand side as above) or at the centre of pressure on the wall system above which would be 15m in from either side? I would have thought that the total horizontal load above are applied at the shear centre of wall system above on the plan of the transfer level wall system below? And that's what I have assumed in the past when we construct buildings with transfer levels. Thanks in advance for any reolys on this one. S.
  7. Thanks for the reply. However i have found some guidance in the new concrete society design examples manual. They have used the section 6.2 of ec2 to calculate the horizontal shear capacity of the wall, taking allowance for the axial load acting down on the wall as per any shear capacity calculation, thus i think this is correct.
  8. How can i check the deflection in a RC two way slab and beam ? Two way slab it's the same with Flat Slab , the only difference it's that Flat Slab doesn't have Beams , and it have higher thickness that Two way Slab ? In rest both slab it's the same ? What about Cantilever Beam and Slab ? L /d = 7 ? And the Cantilever Deflection limit ? Deflection it's a function of Span / Depth ratio . L/d = 26 What Modification factor i need to use ? For example , for a Span = 8.5m , what Depth must to have ? Assuming Modification factor = 1.3 8.5m / ( 26 x 1.3 ) = 0.25m Effective cover = 30mm Overall depth D = 250mm +30mm = 280 mm ================================================ Deflection Limit it's : Live Load : D = Span / 350 Total Load D = Span / 250 That's correct ? ================================================ Please correct me if i'm wrong ! thank you luk Table 1 K factors to be applied to basic ratios of span to effective depth for structural system Element K Simply supported beams or slabs 1.0 End span of continuous beams or slabs 1.3 Interior spans of continuous beams or slabs 1.5 Flat slabs (based on longer span) 1.2 Cantilevers 0.4
  9. rarely go => a building that has no function for the (semi-continuous) presence of human beings. A warehouse without a desk or office (used solely for storage), agricultural sheds, shelters for machinery, technical spaces, ... Rarely go = only when necessary (to pick up stuff, for maintenance, ...) Single occupancy, we interpret as one family as well. If part of the house is rented out, it's no longer single occupancy. It's only an interpretation, but we haven't had any remarks on this approach.
  10. Earlier
  11. Hello As per A.3 Consequences classes of buildings: CC1 is used for Single occupancy houses not exceeding 4 storeys : How do you interpret it? I was thinking "Single occupancy" as single family; but one of my friend says it should be taken as 1 person only. But 1 person for 4 storey sounds strange. Another criterion: "Buildings into which people rarely go, provided no part of the building is closer to another building, or area where people do go, than a distance of 1.5 times the building height." How to interpret "people rarely go"? Is there frequency defined anywhere? Does it mean the surrounding area shall be prohibited for people for 1.5 times building height? I think it should have been people rarely go??? "Single occupancy houses not exceeding 4 storeys" shall also satisfy the last criterion i.e., surrounding area shall be prohibited for people for 1.5 times building height? Please share your views, also tell any reference with more info about Consequence classes interpretation, if any. thanks and regards Gurudev
  12. Sorry for the delayed response, As per " Simplified method for design resistance of fillet weld" for S275; Design weld resistance per unit length will be "467.314*a [(430/1.732)*(1/0.85*1.25)*2*a]" I have taken design value of the weld force per unit length as full strength in tension i.e "275*t" So in this case k will be 0.588 But I think my approach is wrong as Design weld resistance corresponds to shear strength of the weld, Design value of force shall also be shear strength of plate : 275*t/1.732 Now in this case k will be 0.48 again. Which is same as we got according to " Directional method". Gurudev
  13. Free online software for the Eurocodes. Calculation modules for concrete, timber, steele. WWW.KALKULATORYEC.PL
  14. Can someone refer me to procedure for calculating the value of the restraint load used to contribute to net foundation reaction?
  15. Can't find the spreadsheet. please share it with me. email: wascode21@gmail.
  16. Does anyone know if there is a code for calculating a masonry wall with the first (under) row of stones with another (lower) compressive strength ? (p ex to avoid a lineair thermal bridge)
  17. Package Details 3 Year VIP Membership for 33.33 USD per Year Visit for Civil Engineering Downloads, ✓ Software ✓ E-Books ✓ Spreadsheets ✓ Software Manuals ✓ Training Videos ✓ Design Reports ✓ AutoCAD Drawings ✓ Model Files Visit :
  18. Hello Gurudev thanks for looking at my document. Please tell me what exactly you're trying to achieve. you say, the k-factor = .58 , using S275. Could you show me how you got this result? As for the 4mm starting threshold that is mentioned in EC3-1-8, you're correct. I'll adjust the tables to comply with EC3-1-3 § 8.5.2. Thanks for your comments.
  19. And what is your opinion about this?
  20. Hello Actually I was looking for moment connection and P358 refer to simple connections only. So I referred P398, but there is nothing mentioned about design steps for beam to column web connections, also how to evaluate resistance of column web in this case which will be critical (I guess). Regards Gurudev
  21. Hallo. Have you checked the Green Book on simple connections by SCI (P358 if I remember correctly)? Cheers
  22. Hello, My doubt is about requirement of column stiffening As per EN 1993-1-8, 4.10(3), requirement of column stiffened is based on geometry of column and beam and their material. But in cases where reactions to be transferred by joints are less and resistance of flange and web of column is adequate, still do we need to provide stiffening to joint? Also when beam is connected to column web, how to decide whether joint need stiffening or not. Effective width formula is only for beam(plate) connected to flange of column. Can anyone tell me document with guidance on "beam is connected to column web". Regards Gurudev
  23. Hallo. We either use CPT results directly with D.7. annex of EN 1997-2 to calculate the resistance of a pile and then check settlement with characteristic loads with elastic space method. Another way is we draw the CPT result diagrams from all bores next to each other and then superimpose them on onto another to visually inspect and decide on the "mean" values for all "layers". These mean values then are used with the D.7. annex. Best of luck!
  24. Where is the spreadsheet? Please mail me, if you have the spreadsheet to Thank you in advance.
  25. Thanks for the document. When we calculate same for S275 with " Simplified method for design resistance of fillet weld". The k factor comes out to be 0.58. What is your opinion. Also as per EN 1993-1-8 4.1.(1) "The provisions in this section apply to weldable structural steels conforming to EN 1993-1-1 and to material thicknesses of 4 mm and over. " "For welds in thinner material reference should be made to EN 1993 part 1.3." So I think table 4.1 of your doc should revised for the same. Regards Gurudev
  26. Can anyone tell me where can i download the spreadsheet? I really cannot find it. Appreciate someone can guide me my email address is
  27. CPT results give you the cone resistance and the local or total friction. Somethimes also the internal friction angle or some other parameters are mentioned. I was talking to some other engineers about how the CPT results are used and I got some different methods. 1) using the exact values of the CPT result For the bearing capacity of a pile, we use a xls spreadsheet where we have to input the coneresistance. So we input all the CPT-values of the cone resistance to the end of the CPT test. We also have a similar spreadsheet for the bearing capacity of a fondation slab, retaining wall,.. 2) using a "mean" CPT result A collegue doesn't use the exact values of the CPT results but he divides the results in "blocks with +-equal results". Then he uses these mean block-results in the xls spreadsheets. 3) using "soil-type" based on CPT results A collegue (another company) uses the CPT results to determine the soil type (sand, clay,...) or layers of soil-type (soil behavior charts). Then he uses this soil-type in his GEO software with predetermined soil types. So he doesn't input CPT results directly but only the soil types. 4) using "soil-type" in 3D FEM software Similar to (3) but using the soil-type as the "soil" in an 3D FEM analysis. I was wondering what others are doing with CPT results.
  28. I need to check an existing structure. In this structure is a beam-column connection. According to the reinforcement this node could take a moment of Md = 150kNm. (beam 25x50) I would like to use this moment in my 3D model to limit the max moment in this node so I can check the moment at the middle of the beam (lower reinforcement of the beam). If I make this node full-moment resistand, the moment is bigger compared to the 150kNm. But how can I model this? I thought of a non-linear or plastique hinge or something like that? With a non-linear analysis? Any suggestions?
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