dik

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About dik

  • Rank
    Senior Member
  • Birthday 06/13/47

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  • Gender
    Male
  • Location
    Winnipeg, Canada
  • Occupation
    Structural Engineer
  • Expert in
    Actions on Structures
  • CV
    Dik has in excess of 45 years of practical engineering experience, functioning as a structural analyst/designer, project engineer, project manager, and consultant. Dik has gained an extensive knowledge in the field of parking structures encompassing planning, design and restoration, has become familiar with a wide variety of materials of construction and the related building sciences involved, including seismic analysis, and has become well versed in the preparation, interpretation and application of specifications including a working knowledge of construction contracts.

    Experience encompasses the design of concrete, steel and wood structures, electrical sub-station structures, pre-stressed concrete structures, storage tanks, tunnels, lifting devices, crane runways, retaining walls, and fall protection systems. Design experience includes both the use and programming of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) methods.

    Dik has a good working knowledge of other engineering discipline design requirements and design documents including: general arrangement drawings, heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) schematics and project specifications.

    Dik has also provided numerous forensic reports to engineers, lawyers and insurance companies and has testified as an expert witness on numerous occasions.

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  1. Agree about the tensile stresses... some of my first work as an engineer was related to failure of amalgams secured to teeth with steel pins. I met a dentist in the student union building at the University and after a little chat asked what he was studying. He was investigating the failure of amalgam fillings. I asked him what the material was like and he said it had a high compressive strength and a low tensile strength, very much like concrete. I asked him if it could be a tensile fatigue failure generated by the tensile stresses at the bearing of the amalgam and the steel pin. Did some FEM models using a 3D FEM program I had written and then we did additional studies using plastic and polarised light. Was fun... Reinforcing is another issue for bearing. The ACI and CSA codes allow the increase in bearing stress just due to the confining nature of the loaded concrete with a small area loading a large area of concrete. Dik
  2. Unless you really need the compression steel for either flexural capacity or for limiting long/short term deflection it is not common to include its contribution (with the exception of forensic work, where it may be an issue). There are numerous engineering texts that provide an analysis of a doubly reinforced section. Dik
  3. I'm way past the limit and don't know how I got there; I cannot remove uploads to free up some space. Dik
  4. Can you find more recent publications? Unless these papers are exemplary, they are in excess of 30 years old. Dik
  5. Reinis: ACI and CSA codes allow for an increase in bearing capacity based on the overall concrete area and the area loaded; this is independent of the steel reinforcing. Dik
  6. It's a good idea and common to many jurisdictions. Spacing can be closer, but, should only be undertaken if agreed to by the geotechnical consultant on the project. Dik
  7. As Reinis noted... need more info. Are you referring to bearing capacity, either limit states or working stress? There should be an increase in the compressive strength for concrete if the concrete bearing is confined. Don't know if Eurocodes allows for this increase, but, it is common in many jurisdictions. Dik
  8. Can the beam be post-tensioned with conduit as a single continuous beam? Precasting with straight strands can be done with different strand patterns for different loads/spans. Some spans can even have the strand depressed towards the bottom fibre. Precasting gives the advantage of quality finishes and minimal member sizes. Quantity is a lesser issue, the Montreal Olympic Stadium was precast, and I don't think there were two pieces that were the same (this was a mistake IMHO) and it was a terrible detail design project. Composite design of HSS, concrete filled, columns is a good solution for some applications. Check with CIDECT for information including improved fire resistance rating. There are some applications where a fire resistant coating/enclosure is not required. Dik
  9. What value did you use for L and/or d? or did you just want to calculate the ratio? Dik
  10. In these environs, if the beams are wide and shallow (equal to the depth of the slab or slightly greater), they are referred to as 'slab bands' and they function the same as beams. We normally use them spanning one direction only not both ways. If the proportions are correct for spanning two directions, then, the slab can be designed as a two way slab supported on 4 sides (the flexural reinforcing for the slab is substantially diminished). Dik
  11. Thanks... I assume 'rho' is tension reinforcing ratio and that 'rho prime' is compression reinforcing ratio. If incorrect please advise. Is 'rho zero' P0 = (Fck)^0.5 / 1000 and what does it represent? Something related to tensile capacity of concrete? and, your L and d values? Dik
  12. You have your work cut out... the first building if close to WW1 could have concrete ranging from 25Mpa and up. Concrete was in it's early years and had only been around for a couple of decades. You have to take a few concrete cores to get an idea. Other than for columns, concrete strength has limited effect on beam strength, except for shear. Reinforcing steel could be mild steel to wrought iron. Mild steel could be square bars, or 'twisted'. The twisted bars increased the bond and strain hardened the steel. Allowable stress varied from approx 15 ksi to 20 ksi, but may be different. I did a renovation here about 40 years ago and the rebar had just been dumped in the form on chairs? The bars were still tied together complete with the metal identifying tag. They were twisted. You need some coupons to test for chemical and physical properties. 1960 to 1975 is a bit of a stretch. Steel reinforcing in North America was likely 40 ksi, with a chance of 50 ksi and occasionally 60 ksi (less likely). I recall using 10 ksi concrete back around 1970 and that was unusual. Again coupons and cores. Building codes and practices have changed as well as design loads and liability. Can you undertake load testing? Unless for heritage, it may be less costly to re-construct. Dik
  13. In North America, different sections have different classes based on the stiffness of their components or the length/thickness ratios. Is this the class you are referring to? for example a Class 1 section can be used for plastic design, a Class 2 section can use ZxFy as limit loading, but not be used for plastic design, a Class 3 section can use SxFy for limit loading, etc. Dik
  14. Can you post a picture that is more clear? Dik
  15. I have these: Access Steel Documents Case Study Luxembourg Chamber of Commerce's Exposed Steel Case Study 19 Storey Residential Building at Deansgate, Manchester, UK Case study Airforge building, Pamiers, France Case Study Apartments for Social Housing in Rheims, France Case Study Bilbao Exhibition Centre, Spain Case Study City Gate, Düsseldorf, Germany Case Study Constantin's Family House, Ploiesti, Romania Case study ELUZ Building in Croissy-Beaubourg, France Case Study Energy-Efficient House in Finland Case Study Fire Engineering of "Las Cañas" Shopping Centre, Viana, Spain Case Study Fire engineering of Airbus halls, Toulouse, France Case Study Fire Engineering of Indoor Football Arena, Finland Case Study Fire Engineering of office building AOB, Luxembourg Case Study Fire Engineering of Terminal 2F, Charles de Gaulle airport, Paris Case Study ING Headquarters, Amsterdam Case study Isozaki Atea, Bilbao, Spain Case Study Kista Science Tower, Stockholm Case Study Köln Arena, Germany Case Study Le Sequana Case Study New Air Cargo Hub for DHL at Nottingham East Midlands Airport, UK Case study Office building - 7 place d'Iéna, Paris Case Study Office Building, Palestra, London Case Study Raines Court, London, UK Case Study Rembrandt Tower, Amsterdam, Netherlands Case Study Residential Building, Fulham, UK Case Study Residential Building, SMART House, Rotterdam, Netherlands Case study Sheraton hotel, Bilbao, Spain Case Study Shopping Centre CACTUS, Esch/Alzette, Luxembourg Case study The Arabianranta Project, Helsinki, Finland Case study The OpenHouse System, Sweden Case Study Typical low rise office building in Luxembourg Client Guide for Single Storey Buildings Client guide on the key issues for structural fire resistance Client Guide Value from Steel Construction for Commercial Buildings Client guide The benefits of steel for residential construction Code commentary Collection No. 1 Code commentary EN 1994-1-2 §4.3.5 Simple calculation method for composite columns Code commentary Tangent modulus for concrete at elevated temperature Data Buckling factors at elevated temperature Data Classification of sections at elevated temperature Data Critical temperatures for the design fire resistance of steel beams and members in tension Data Limiting compressive stresses for the design fire resistance of steel columns Data Nominal temperature-time curves Data Nomogram for protected members Data Nomogram for unprotected members Data Properties of fire compartment lining materials Data Reduction factors for mechanical properties of carbon steel at elevated temperature Data Section classification tables for European hot rolled beam profiles (IPE and HE profiles) Design of composite columns Example Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate Example Bolted connection of an angle brace in tension to a gusset plate (GB) Example Buckling resistance of a pinned column with intermediate restraints Example Buckling resistance of a pinned column with intermediate restraints (GB) Example Calculation of alpha-cr Example Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in bending Example Calculation of effective section properties for a cold-formed lipped channel section in compression Example Choosing a steel sub-grade Example Column base connection under axial compression Example Column base connection under axial compression (GB) Example Column splice - non-bearing splice Example Composite floor slab Example Continuous column in a multi-storey building using a UKC section (GB) Example Continuous column in a multi-storey building using an H-section or RHS Example Design and serviceability limit state check of a cold-formed steel member in bending Example Design of a cold-formed steel lipped channel wall stud in compression Example Design of a cold-formed steel lipped channel wall stud in compression and bending Example Design of a cold-formed steel lipped channel wall stud in tension Example Design resistance of a screwed connection of cold-formed members Example Determination of loads on a building envelope Example Elastic analysis of a single bay portal frame Example Elastic analysis of a single bay portal frame (GB) Example Elastic design of a single bay portal frame made of fabricated profiles Example End plate beam-to-column-flange simple connection Example End plate beam-to-column-flange simple connection (GB) Example Fin plate beam-to-column-flange connection Example Fin plate beam-to-column-flange connection (GB) Example Fire design of a protected HEB section column exposed to the parametric fire curve Example Fire design of a protected HEB section column exposed to the standard temperature time curve Example Fire design of a protected unrestrained HEA section beam exposed to the standard temperature time curve Example Fire design of an unprotected beam using graphs Example Fire design of an unprotected IPE section beam exposed to the standard time temperature curve Example Fire design of protected IPE section beam exposed to parametric fire curve Example Fire design of unprotected HEB section column exposed to the standard temperature time curve Example Fire engineering a composite SHS column Example Fire resistance of a composite slab to EN 1994-1-2 Example Fire resistance of a partially encased composite column Example Fire resistance of a partially encased composite steel beam Example Fire resistance of a welded box section Example Parametric fire curve for a fire compartment Example Pinned column using non slender H-section or RHS Example Pinned column using non slender UKC section (GB) Example Portal frame - eaves moment connection Example Simply supported beam with intermediate lateral restraints Example Simply supported beam with intermediate lateral restraints (GB) Example Simply supported beam with lateral restraint at load application point Example Simply supported beam with lateral restraint at load application point (GB) Example Simply supported IPE profile purlin Example Simply supported laterally unrestrained beam Example Simply supported laterally unrestrained beam (GB) Example Simply supported primary composite beam Example Simply supported primary composite beam (GB) Example Simply supported secondary composite beam Example Simply supported secondary composite beam (GB) Example Single span truss and post frame for a low pitch roof using battened section chords Example Sway stability Example Truss/post end connection Example Truss/post end connection (GB) Example Tying and the avoidance of disproportionate collapse Example Unrestrained beam with end moments Example Unrestrained beam with end moments (GB) Flow chart Design of a column base under axial load Flow chart Buckling verification of non-uniform members in portal frames Flow chart Calculation of effective section properties for cold-formed steel lipped channel sections under compression or bending Flow Chart Choosing a steel sub-grade Flow chart Design and serviceability limit state check of a cold-formed steel member in bending Flow Chart Design model for non-bearing column splices Flow chart Design model for welded joints in trusses using structural hollow sections Flow chart Design of a cold-formed steel lipped channel member in tension Flow chart Design of a cold-formed steel member in compression Flow chart Design of a cold-formed steel wall stud in combined compression and uniaxial bending Flow chart Design of a non-composite beam under uniform loading - detailed procedure Flow chart Design of a simply supported composite beam - Common cases Flow chart Design of a wind transverse girder Flow chart Design of chord splice in structural hollow sections Flow Chart Design of non-composite columns Flow chart Design of tapering elements in presence of plastic hinge (haunches) Flow chart Design resistance of screwed connections of cold-formed members Flow chart Elastic analysis of a portal frame Flow chart Element (rafter or column) design in presence of plastic hinge (uniform section) Flow chart Element elastic design, uniform sections (rafter or column) Flow Chart Evaluation of wind loads Flow Chart Evaluation of wind loads (single-storey buildings) Flow Chart Fin plate connection Flow chart Fire resistance of a beam in bending Flow chart Fire resistance of a column in combined axial compression and bending Flow chart Fire resistance of a composite slab Flow chart Fixed column bases Flow chart Floor slab design Flow chart Frame analysis Flow Chart Governing combination of actions Flow chart Pinned column base connection in portal frames Flow chart Plastic analysis of a portal frame Flow chart Portal frame apex connection Flow chart Portal frame eaves connection Flow Chart Simple end plate connection Flow Chart Simple method for the design of non-composite beams and cantilevers Flow Chart Simple method for the design of no-sway braced frames Flow chart Simplified model for thermal actions in a localised fire Flow chart Simplified model for thermal actions in compartment fire Flow chart Steel temperature development for insulated steel members Flow chart Steel temperature development for unprotected steel members Flow chart Thermal actions for temperature analysis Flowchart Vertical bracing design Flowchart Design of a simply supported composite beam - Details NCCI Vertical and horizontal deflection limits for multi-storey buildings NCCI "Simple Construction" - concept and typical frame arrangements NCCI Bearing column splices NCCI Buckling lengths of columns rigorous approach NCCI Calculation of alpha-cr NCCI Column base stiffness for global analysis NCCI Column splices not requiring full continuity of stiffness NCCI Critical axial load for torsional and flexural torsional buckling modes NCCI Design model for non-bearing column splices NCCI Design model for simple column bases- axially loaded I section columns NCCI Design model for welded joints in trusses using structural hollow sections NCCI Design models for splices in structural hollow sections NCCI Design of a notched section at the end of a beam NCCI Design of fixed column base joints NCCI Design of out of plane and transverse restraint systems for portal frames NCCI Design of portal frame apex connections NCCI Design of portal frame eaves connections NCCI Design of roof trusses NCCI Design of simple column bases with shear nibs NCCI Design rules for web openings in beams NCCI Determination of moments on columns in simple construction NCCI Determination of non-dimensional slenderness of I and H sections NCCI Effective lengths and destabilizing load parameters for beams and cantilevers - common cases NCCI Effective lengths of columns and truss elements in truss portal frame construction NCCI Elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling NCCI Elastic critical moment for lateral torsional buckling NCCI Elastic critical moment of cantilevers NCCI Fire resistance design of composite slabs (GB) NCCI General method for out-of-plane buckling in portal frames NCCI Initial Design of Composite Beams NCCI Initial Design of Composite Beams (GB) NCCI Initial Design of non Composite Beams NCCI Initial Design of non Composite Beams (GB) NCCI Initial sizing of fin plate connections. NCCI Initial sizing of non-bearing column splices NCCI Initial sizing of simple end plate connections. NCCI Initial sizing of vertical bracing for a multi-storey building for design as a braced, non-sway frame NCCI Modelling of portal frames - elastic analysis NCCI Mono-symmetrical uniform members under bending and axial compression NCCI Practical analytical models for portal frames (plastic analysis) NCCI Practical deflection limits for single storey buildings NCCI Shear resistance of a fin plate connection NCCI Shear resistance of a simple end plate connection NCCI Simple methods for second order effects in portal frames NCCI Simplified approaches to the selection of equivalent horizontal forces for the global analysis of braced and unbraced frames NCCI Sizing guidance - non-composite columns (H sections) NCCI Sizing guidance - non-composite columns-UC sections (GB) NCCI Torsion NCCI Tying resistance of a fin plate connection NCCI Tying resistance of a simple end plate connection NCCI Verification of columns in simple construction - a simplified interaction criterion (GB) NCCI Vibrations Scheme Development Procurement of design services for light steel residential structures Scheme development Accommodation of services in residential construction with light steel structures Scheme development Acoustic performance in residential construction with light steel framing Scheme development Board fire protection Scheme development Checklist for fire design of multi-storey apartments Scheme development Checklist for fire design of multi-storey office buildings Scheme development Checklist for fire design of single occupancy houses Scheme development Checklist for fire design of single-storey buildings Scheme Development Composite beams and columns exposed to fire Scheme development Composite floors exposed to fire Scheme Development Composite slabs for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use Scheme Development Conceptual design of truss and column solutions Scheme development Concrete filled tubular members exposed to fire Scheme Development Coordination of structural and architectural design for multi-storey buildings with steel frames Scheme Development Corrosion of steel structures Scheme Development Design of portal frames using fabricated welded sections Scheme Development Details for portal frames using rolled sections Scheme development Ensuring fire safety Scheme development Fire resistance of light steel in residential structures Scheme Development Fire safety strategy for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use Scheme development Foundations for light steel residential structures Scheme development Fundamentals of structural fire design Scheme development Hybrid construction with light steel and hot rolled steel for residential structures Scheme development Initial design decisions for light steel structures Scheme Development Integrated beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use Scheme development Intermediate floors in light steel residential structures Scheme development Intumescent coatings Scheme Development Key information for clients for multi-storey buildings with steel frames Scheme Development Location and its influence on the design of multi-storey buildings with steel frames Scheme Development Movement joints in steel buildings Scheme Development Overview of fire safety strategy for single-storey buildings Scheme development Overview of structural systems for single-storey buildings Scheme Development Overview of the servicing strategies for multi-storey office buildings Scheme Development Overview of the sustainability of steel-framed, multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use Scheme Development Precast Concrete slabs for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use Scheme Development Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use Scheme development Purlin structure design Scheme development Resistance to horizontal actions in multi-storey, steel-framed, buildings Scheme development Roofs for light steel residential structures Scheme Development Secondary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use Scheme development Selection of appropriate fire engineering strategy for multi-storey commercial and apartment buildings Scheme development Selection of appropriate fire engineering strategy for single-occupancy houses Scheme development Selection of appropriate fire engineering strategy for single-storey buildings Scheme Development Selection of economic framing arrangements for low and medium rise, steel and composite, buildings Scheme development Selection of the external roof envelope system for single storey buildings Scheme development Selection of the external wall envelope system for single storey buildings Scheme Development Service Integration In Buildings Scheme development Shielded members in fire Scheme Development Slim floor systems exposed to fire Scheme development Sprayed fire protection Scheme Development Stressed skin diaphragm action Scheme development Structural systems and preferred methods for procurement of light steel residential construction Scheme development Thermal performance of residential construction with light steel framing Scheme development Unprotected steel in fire Scheme Development Vertical structure for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use Scheme development Walls in light steel in residential structures Scheme Development Web openings for services in beams in multi-storey buildings If there is some way I can get them to you. I don't know about copyright issues; they were downloaded free from the Access Steel site a few years ago. I'd have sent it as a *.pdf file, but I've reached my limit for uploading. Dik