eca

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About eca

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  • Birthday 02/17/80

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    Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  1. In publication "Eurocode load combinations for Steel structures" in Chapter 4.1.2 state "Frame imperfections may be incorporated directly into the structural analysis by defining an initial sway for the frame. However, the more general approach is to replace this geometric imperfection with a system of equivalent horizontal forces (EHF), referred to as notional horizontal loads in BS 5950. Whereas in BS 5950, equivalent horizontal forces were only required in the vertical load case, in the Eurocodes it is deemed that since frame imperfections are inherently present, they should be included in all ULS load combinations. This appears entirely rational. EHF are not required in SLS load combinations. The EHF should be determined separately for each load combination since they depend on the level of design vertical loads. For each storey, the EHF may be calculated as the design vertical load for that storey (not the cumulative vertical load) multiplied by 1/200 (i.e. 0.5%). Depending on the height of the structure and the number of columns in a row, reductions to this basic value of 1/200 are possible, as detailed in Clause 5.3.2(3) of EN 1993-1-1. If horizontal loads (H Ed) exceed 15% of vertical loads (VEd cr) these cr sway imperfections may be disregarded, and EHF ignored – this would more oftern apply to low rise buildings. So in Chapter 4.2.1 Load combination for ULS (based on equation 6.10 from EC1990) is: 1,35G+1,5Q+0,75W+EHF where EHF is "Efective horisontal force" I strongly recommend to read publication.
  2. I start to use EC just few month ago, and "ICE Designers guide..." are my bible for now. E-codes are not spimple codes and in "DG" authors explain a lot of questions. So, dear student, they are worthwhile...
  3. Well, my dear coleagues, as I saw problem posted above, I recomend to you a book named "Beispiele zur Bemessung von Stahltragwerken nach DIN EN 1993 Eurocode 3". In tihis book all facility (industrial building) is deigned in steel, by EC3. Highly recomended